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Why 278 Men for a Frigate? #Nelson’s Navy

A 36-gun frigate of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic era had a crew of around 278 men. So let’s find out what they were up to. There were 24 fore-topmen, divided into two watches; the starboard and larboard watch. Next there were the main topmen, with 30 men on each watch. Then the mizzen topmen, with nine men in each watch. The officers consisted of five commissioned officers, five seamen warrant officers, 10 civilian warrant officers, and 10 mates and midshipmen. On the forecastle we have another 10 men in each watch; whereas the Waisters had eight men each. The largest group was the afterguard with 40 men in each watch. It also contained the largest number of landsmen (the least qualified personnel on board). The next group were the Idlers with 24 men. As you can see, this group is not divided into two watches; similar to the 12 boys serving as servants. One of the largest groups on board was the Marines with a total of 50 men; including the officer and NCOs. The following smaller groups were organised in watches again, namely the Boatwain’s mates (with two men); the Quartermaster’s, with three men; the Gunner’s crew, with five men; and, finally, the Carpenter’s crew, with five artisans in each watch. Now, a bit more information on these groups. The Topmen, on the masts, were the most skilled seamen. The also had the most courage, as ascending and descending in a storm was quite a challenge. Note that each group included one landsmen for each watch; those were the most able of them, assigned for training. The men on the forecastle of the ship were usually the most experienced, but also the oldest, and more corpulent, because their work was important, like working the anchor, but less urgent than the work of the Topmen. The Waisters were the least skilled men and did most of the drudgery work. The Afterguard were composed mostly of lower skilled landsmen, led by seamen. The job involved mostly pulling and hauling. Idlers were basically all men who were not subjected to night watches, due to the importance of their day duty. This group included the Master of Arms, armourer, sailmaker, cook and other members with important service duties. The officers included, of course, the Captain. The commissioned officers performed the administration of the ship; but they were not specialised, unlike the various warrant officers. The servants and marines will be covered in the next section. Now the Boatswain’s mates were petty officers who ensured the discipline onboard, they woke up the crew and carried out punishments, like flogging. The Quartermasters were skilled and experienced seamen who directed the steerage of the ship. They were also responsible that cargo and ballast was properly stored. The Gunner’s crew were there to maintain the guns and their carriages. Since this was usually not enough work, they would also assist in various other duties. The Carpenter’s crew were skilled and semi-skilled workers who maintained the oakum that was used to seal the planks of the ship. So let us look how these professions summed up in total. We have five commissioned officers; one of them is the Captain. They were commissioned by the Admiralty. And, unlike most other members on board, were trained by the Royal Navy, not the merchant service or ashore. They were trained seamanship, navigation, and gunnery; yet they were not specialised, unlike the warrant officers. There were five seamen warrant officers, and ten civilian warrant officers. The distinction was that the latter performed jobs similar to those performed ashore, like purser, surgeon, or chaplain. Examples of seaman warrant officers were boatswain and master. The job of the 10 mates and midshipmen was various, like overseeing the watches, keeping logs, and assisting the officers they were assigned to. Note, although this was a rather high rank, the average age of midshipmen was 15-20 years old. The reason for this was they often came from a privileged position, and the rank of midshipman was an intermediary for reaching the position of lieutenant. The 36 petty officers had various different jobs, like Quartermaster, Gunner’s mate, Sailmaker or even cook (who was usually an experienced seaman who had lost a limb in service). The largest group were the ordinary and able seamen with 84 men. A seaman was a skilled man. The least experienced group were the 37 landsmen, which could have various backgrounds, like weavers, shoemakers, bakers, butchers, and artists. And some of them served among the Idlers that were not subject to night watches. Those like weavers that couldn’t make use of their old trade, would carry out menial tasks while being trained to be seamen. The ablest landsmen would be attached to the topmen watches for training. Then were the 17 artisans. Although there were more artisans in total on ship, not all of them had a special rank. Next up are the 14 boys. Some of them served as servants, but could also be working as a seaman. This often depended on the Captain. The route of the servant was the privileged way to enter the Navy, and often was the career step to Midshipman. Now, the final group was the second largest group on board with 50 men, and composed of one Marine officer, three Marine NCOs and 46 Marine privates. Their duties were to defend against, and perform, boarding actions in combat; but also to prevent mutiny. Due to the latter, they usually had their own space assigned to separate them from the regular crew. Now, let’s look back at the original crew layout. Note, this is under normal circumstances; in case of a battle the situation was different. In that case about 70-80% of the whole crew would be assigned to the guns. A final note on a courtesy: as far as I know, the ship in the illustration is actually not a 36-gun frigate, but since the renowned British naval historian Brian Lavary used it show show the crew distribution, I think it is valid. As far as I know it is actually a 38-gun frigate of the Minerva class. Although Lavary notes Captain Marryat as a source who actively served on a 38-gun frigate of the Lively class, the HMS Spartan. So, as always, take all these numbers with a grain of salt, especially since… back then, the regulations were less over-boarding and many aspects were under the authority of the individual captain. As always, all written sources are in the description. If you like what you saw, and you want to help me out creating more content, check out my Patreon account. Also be sure to check out my other videos on the Napoleonic Era naval warfare; one on gunnery and one on tactics. Thank you for watching, and see you next time. [music]

Tony wyaad



  1. Birkbecks Posted on January 4, 2017 at 11:52 pm

    excellent very well done keep up the good work

  2. William Luo Posted on January 6, 2017 at 6:33 pm

    Can u do a video on 1st rate ship of the line?

  3. Brazilianconfederate Posted on January 7, 2017 at 9:20 pm

    Seeing this makes me want to play Uncharted WAters

  4. Chris Gaming Posted on January 8, 2017 at 3:56 am

    Make a yamato vs iowa video

  5. lomax343 Posted on January 10, 2017 at 4:40 pm

    Many boy servants of the time were so-called ghost servants. That is, they were entered on the roster of the ship, but never actually set foot of in her. Most of them came from privileged backgrounds. The point of the arrangement was so that a) the captain could pocket their pay, not to mention an initial one-off bribe; and b) they could be credited with "experience" which would help them attain their next posting, without the inconvenience of actually going to sea.

  6. Kelly G Posted on January 15, 2017 at 4:11 am

    This was fantastic

  7. thePoxxxx Posted on January 17, 2017 at 3:51 pm

    how where jobs redistributed after a battle, when part of the crew was dead?

  8. ODDBALL SOK Posted on January 18, 2017 at 12:09 pm

    2:19 Soooo, the Pirates of the carribean basterd Quartermaster(s) should actually have been called the Boatswains ?
    Bosun bosun bosun !

  9. thracianTV Posted on January 20, 2017 at 1:30 am

    When the ship left port it would carry as many as 100 more men than needed on the expectation that they would be needed as replacements for men who were killed by accidents, disease, bad nutrition, and poor living conditions (but mostly by the awful diet and disease)

  10. awpdog Posted on January 31, 2017 at 5:18 pm

    The lighthearted descriptions for the icons are just superb. Makes following the numbers easier. 🙂

  11. Douglas Oak Posted on February 9, 2017 at 2:31 am

    you should watch this


  12. DumbDuck44 Posted on February 26, 2017 at 2:45 pm

    That's a load of semen.

  13. Real Idiot Posted on February 27, 2017 at 12:07 am

    Why 50 men for a german ww2 submarine?

  14. carguy67b Posted on March 10, 2017 at 6:45 pm

    Really like the informantion and how you are presenting keeps history intrersting . Please keep adding to the libary , thank you

  15. Internally Screaming Posted on March 12, 2017 at 8:26 am

    1:16 I cant help but giggle

  16. Robert Li Posted on March 13, 2017 at 2:07 am

    I know this was two months ago but can you please do a overview of the infantry tactics of the napoleonic era? Please this will really help me

  17. Mike Rangel Posted on March 25, 2017 at 3:49 am

    Regarding 'Boys' – I was told it was common to pay a Captain of the ship to put your young 6 year old son's name on the sailor list of his ship. Even though the child never step foot on the ship. This way when the child reached 18 years old he was listed as having 12 years sea experience and could get a good job at the Admiralty.

  18. AlexSaysHi2013 Posted on March 29, 2017 at 2:47 am

    You speak very good English. Heavy accent in all, I could understand everything you said. Oh, and awesome video as always!

  19. meow meow meow Posted on March 31, 2017 at 8:51 am

    can you make a video about your MILITARY BOOK LIST

  20. Old_Guard Posted on April 4, 2017 at 11:50 pm

    Excellent presentation. "Mates". . . These were the petty officers that served (usually) under the direction of a warrant officer:
    Sailing Master (or "Master"): Warrant officer highly experienced in navigation, piloting, sail handling etc. Masters Mates were petty officers that would stand actual watch with a Lieutenant.
    Gunner: Warrant officer in charge of ordnance. Gunners Mates – his subordinates that would help manage the magazine and assist Lieutenants in charge of individual decks or batteries.
    Individual Lieutenants might be well versed in gunnery, navigation or sail handling, but they were back-stopped by the warrant officers and their "mates".
    Distinguish the merchant service where the "Master" was the captain and the "Mates" were his watch-standing officers:
    Captain = Master
    1st Lieutenant = Chief Mate
    2nd Lieutenant = Second Mate

  21. TruthfulImmigrant Posted on April 7, 2017 at 3:09 am

    Can you do a WW2 Battleship or Aircraft Carrier?

  22. Macdeas Posted on May 8, 2017 at 3:19 pm

    Mighty Jingles Mining Ltd, love the reference

  23. bowrudder Posted on June 7, 2017 at 2:02 pm

    Military History Visualized
    Anchor is pronounced an[k]or, not an[ch]or. Chaplain is pronounced CHAPlin, not chaPLAIN.

  24. Switcharoo12 Posted on June 14, 2017 at 10:16 pm

    love your videos.
    that is all.

  25. Anglus Posted on June 25, 2017 at 4:03 am

    With regards pronunciations, it makes no difference what languages you are competent in (even English) as there is a particular way seamen traditionally pronounce certain words and terminologies many sounding shortened or clipped or heavily abbreviated. Personally I wouldn't worry about it unless you are on a working vessel where terminology is relevant.

  26. Zamolxes77 Posted on June 25, 2017 at 2:28 pm

    So much seamen.

  27. Thrust vectoring Posted on June 26, 2017 at 10:04 pm

    It would be great for non-english speaking and/or landlocked nation people to explain what these guys were doing. Because saying they were midshipmen does not tell anything to me, I can translate it, but I will not have a clue what they were doing, since I am from a country that is landlocked and never had a navy and doesn't even have terms for these people.

  28. Natsumei Posted on June 27, 2017 at 6:30 am

    is it me or this frigate doesnt carry any doctor? not even 1 medical officer mentioned. wow.

  29. RistinRitarit Posted on June 27, 2017 at 11:37 am

    Which one is it '37 or 47' Landmen?

  30. James Dunn Posted on June 27, 2017 at 11:58 pm

    I understand that the crews of British Navy ships were so large in order to provide adequate cover in the event of deaths and injuries of crew members from combat or sickness/disease.

  31. Gödeke Michels Posted on June 28, 2017 at 6:11 am

    One should also note that Naval ships of that time usually took a good amount more crew witht hem than actually needed because they had to expect a quite high amount of deaths even on a peacefull journey. Even with scurvy somewhat under controll thanks to try and error research like from Cpt. Cook a long distance sea journey was far from safe and the supply sittuation far from optimal back then. This was also the reason that important skills were doubled, tribbled an so on.

  32. Uhlan Posted on June 28, 2017 at 6:37 am

    You mention the Lively class boat Spartan (38), some may find it of interest that another Lively class boat, HMS Macedonian fought and was captured by the American frigate United States. Macedonian had a crew of 301 and suffered 43 killed and
    71 wounded.

  33. Steve Morse Posted on June 28, 2017 at 6:54 am

    With respect to Jordan's comment below
    Very well done, thank you.

  34. James Simmons Posted on June 28, 2017 at 7:09 am

    Where machinery is low manpower must be high. A sail only war ship must be able to out maneuver it's opponent. Unlike a merchantman who can take his time with such things, the warship must have adequate manpower at the ready at all of the line stations. There is a separate crew for each mast divided up into smaller groups who tend the lines. When at battle stations this sort of ship would typically hoist all of it's mains in order to increase visibility all around. The crew of each mast is responsible for this which must be done quickly. On a British frigate there would usually be no marine detachment so ship's company would also man the guns which is no easy task with running them in and out. Typically four men per gun. Add to all of this now the regular watch, two on the helm, double lookouts and so on and special details depending on tides, winds, depth or water and currents not to mention the condition of the opposing force.

  35. Cleatus McGurkin Posted on June 29, 2017 at 4:50 pm

    I liked his use of the term "larboard" I haven't heard anybody use it in quite a few years, this guy know his stuff.

  36. studinthemaking Posted on July 1, 2017 at 3:46 am

    What is a civilian warrant officer?

  37. Michael Oschätzchen Posted on July 2, 2017 at 8:23 pm

    MJ Mining Ltd. – Might Jingels perhaps ?? haha

  38. Biscuitchris7again Posted on July 3, 2017 at 9:11 pm

    Apparently something terribly nautical and fascinating has just happened and I am at a loss.

  39. Phil Waters Posted on July 4, 2017 at 12:13 am

    Excellent summary my man… thank's for that… All the more full an understanding of the antique cassette tapes of Robert Hardy reading Patrick O'brian's series of historical naval novels… xxx 😉

  40. Islacrusez Posted on July 4, 2017 at 8:21 pm

    MJ's salt mines? As in Jingles?

  41. absolutetuber Posted on July 5, 2017 at 6:07 am

    i love the description of an able seaman. cool times and an awesome trade

  42. Debbiebabe69 Posted on July 5, 2017 at 3:41 pm

    Could you please give another one of these illustrating where each man went when in combat? Since the ship still needs to be sailed, would that mean the guns are mainly manned by sailmakers, surgeons, cooks, pursers ect?

    Also, on how boarding parties were organised. Hollywood seems to think the first people to board an enemy ship would be the captain, boatswain, mates ect. Surely this cant be true, as all would happen is the most senioe crew serve just to absorb the enemy volley of musket fire with thier stomachs?

  43. Rodney Caupp Posted on July 5, 2017 at 11:38 pm

    The speaker is Amazingly articulate. My sailor butt loved this. Olde Navy – 69/73 US "Frigate" , damn Tin Can with a crew of "Watchers of about 278…….

  44. Wayne Robinson Posted on July 7, 2017 at 3:18 am

    Excellent video. The data analysis about the composition of various ranks was really nicely done. I came for the the sailing and stayed for the analytics!

  45. Tessa T Posted on July 8, 2017 at 5:33 am

    Boatswain is pronounced "Bo-sun" and the Forcastle is pronounced "foke-sul." Chaplain is pronounced "Chap-lin". English pronunciation from England doesn't make much sense but there it is. These crew numbers are ideal in the sense that at least some of these men would be sick or injured and contemporary sources complain constantly about being under-manned and lacking the full complement at any one time. Now I want to know just where did they put them all? How exactly did they stow them around the ship?

  46. Diche Bach Posted on July 8, 2017 at 6:28 pm

    Fascinating stuff!

  47. John Fisher Posted on July 8, 2017 at 8:04 pm

    Excellent Video – Thank You!

  48. Maldus Alver Posted on July 11, 2017 at 7:48 pm

    Could we see the battle placement when beating to quarters? I know that Marines were often on masts as well as topside to provide rifle fire when ships reached close range.

  49. ymirfrostgiant Posted on July 14, 2017 at 12:50 pm

    Forecastle = "focksle"
    Boatswain = "bowsun"

  50. Tony Duncan Posted on July 15, 2017 at 9:01 am

    Thanks. "Boatswain" is pronounced "BOE-sun". "Napoleonic" – "na-POLE-eeonnik". You have a GSOH.

  51. cavscout888 Posted on July 19, 2017 at 4:45 am

    OMG this model looks exactly like my workplace (nuclear power plant). Even down to the marines (security officers).

  52. Hyper Nova Posted on July 20, 2017 at 11:47 pm

    just read hornblower….

  53. HorribleHarry Posted on July 27, 2017 at 9:46 pm

    Thank you for these!

  54. MojoBonzo Posted on July 28, 2017 at 12:39 am

    huehuehue semen warrant officers huehuehue

  55. Clint Carpentier Posted on July 29, 2017 at 7:43 am

    You got this for the rest of the ships? And modern ships?

  56. BigMikeMcBastard Posted on July 30, 2017 at 12:02 am

    It's pronounced "leff-tenant". Only Americans say "loo-tenant".

  57. Total Noob Posted on July 30, 2017 at 6:25 am

    I think the young 14 boys were kept as "pleasure toys" …..

  58. flyboymb Posted on July 30, 2017 at 10:10 pm

    Hmm… 14 boys, 5 commissioned officers, 5 seaman warrants, 1 marine officer, and 3 marine NCOs.

    Even number for the total rest of the crew.

    Years at sea.

    I think the Admiralty had some clandestine plans to help avoid mutiny in the fleet.

  59. Dara Ehteshamzadeh Posted on August 1, 2017 at 4:04 am

    As an aside, this is something that even native English speakers get wrong, but I believe that, boatswain is USUALLY pronounced "bosun." It's one of those several hundred words unrecognizable by the landmen.

  60. William Cox Posted on August 1, 2017 at 10:04 am

    The two most important things on any British Bark during the Age of Sail are:
    1) When is the rum ration?
    2) Whose turn in the barrel is it?
    I'll let myself out.

  61. William Cox Posted on August 1, 2017 at 10:10 am

    <The signalman lowers his spyglass and turns to Lord Nelson> "Sir, the Foxfire reports there are French ships in Cairo."
    <Lord Nelson> "Frigate. Just frig it. I'm going down below. Send me a fresh cabin boy."

  62. Jack Carter Posted on August 2, 2017 at 6:11 pm

    Excellent video, thank you for making it.

  63. joseph langan Posted on August 5, 2017 at 2:07 am

    That's interesting the term waster or "waister" is still used in Ireland as a derogatory term for a useless person, great video besides, those old ship's must have been pretty crowded

  64. Jerry VanNuys Posted on August 9, 2017 at 9:22 am

    Great presentation. The one thing that would really tie it all together would be to see is a physical layout of the ship and where all of these people would be at any given time.

    It doesn't look like a ship that size could hold that many people.

  65. Anteep Posted on August 9, 2017 at 11:44 am

    A German talking about ships? Shocking!

  66. Werner Heisenberg Posted on August 9, 2017 at 2:27 pm

    shouldnt a ship with 24 gunports on one side be at least a 48 gun ship? 😀

  67. Military History Visualized Posted on August 21, 2017 at 12:40 pm

    YouTube's ad policies are getting out of hand, thus sadly, I have to adapt my financial strategy if I want to continue this channel.

    Please, support properly sourced Military History on Patreon! Every $ helps: http://patreon.com/mhv/

  68. Caesar Seriona Posted on September 8, 2017 at 7:05 pm

    Why civilian officers?

  69. joe jitsu Posted on September 9, 2017 at 7:06 am

    Military History Visualized Great video! Thanks for putting it together. For what it's worth, boatswain is properly pronounced BO-sun. It's often spelled bosun or bos'n.

  70. Jovan Weismiller Posted on September 22, 2017 at 5:20 am

    You know, I actually scrolled down to the comment section to gently point out that 'boatswain' is pronounced (and often spelt) bos'n. However, after reading a few comments, I'm sure this has been pointed out. So, all I'll say is MHV keep up the excellent work, accent, mispronunciations and all! You provide a valuable resource for military history buffs like myself!

  71. dan brooks Posted on November 19, 2017 at 5:20 am

    awesome video, it would be great if you did a similar breakdown of the crew of a vessel from a different era, or some other unit you find interesting or characteristic!

  72. Wolvenworks Posted on November 28, 2017 at 5:00 am

    to summarize: lotta people because there's no respawn lol

  73. El Guapo Posted on January 28, 2018 at 3:23 am

    Good info for those newcomers to Hornblower and/or the Aubrey–Maturin series

  74. Kyle Fitz Posted on February 10, 2018 at 5:28 pm

    check out Naval action its a game on steam for the age of sail the best age of sail simulator out there

  75. Dan Sneyd Posted on February 19, 2018 at 9:46 pm

    great video. boatswain is pronounced bosun

  76. Big Blue Posted on May 9, 2018 at 7:05 pm

    Not sure if anyone has mentioned this but is pronounced bo'son not boatswain. Hope that helps.

  77. Winston Smith Posted on June 8, 2018 at 4:32 am

    It's pronounced 'folksal', not fore-castle (forecastle). The development of the sailing frigate was a development first of the 17th century Spanish Navy & significant improvements and development of this class of ship was continued by the 18th century French navy, NOT the Royal Navy (they captured frigates then built from the French design).

  78. theNobleTaco Posted on July 3, 2018 at 6:15 pm

    Ha! Seamen.

  79. LTrain 45 Posted on October 30, 2018 at 3:53 pm

    Ah it's Bo-sun mate

  80. BBB H Posted on November 2, 2018 at 9:40 pm

    RECCOMENDATION: Anyone that is interested I'm this video really ought to read Patrick O'Brien's Aubrey-Maturin series, also known as the 'Master and Commander' books. (vis-a-vis the 2000s era movie by that name starring Russell Crow, which is likewise historically accurate.)

    They cover, in a historically accurate and entertaining manner, naval warfare in the Napoleonic wars, and have been called 'the best historical novels ever written' by the NYT book review.

    If one has any interest in this era, or naval warfare, or just good writing, they should check them out!

    (For example, having read the books, everything in this video, and others re: this same era) was no suprise- imo, accurate historical fiction is invaluable, both as entertainment, and as education.

    Cheers! -B

  81. LessCommonKnowledge Posted on November 7, 2018 at 11:54 pm

    As far as the gun discrepancy goes, I remember reading something in Teddy Roosevelt's book on the Naval war of 1812, about how a Frigate classified as a 42 gun frigate would usually in reality have 48 guns, it stands to reason that the discrepancy in gun numbers may be down to this same quirk in classification.

  82. Neil Wilson Posted on November 9, 2018 at 12:26 am

    Just don't let Preserved Killick play with the Narwhal horn, or let the Marine Captain's dog eat the hand of glory. The dog was called Naseby, if I recall. Nice name. He survived the surgery.

  83. CMDRFandragon Posted on November 23, 2018 at 9:10 pm

    Lol who else heard midshipmen as midgetmen?

  84. fussball Posted on December 16, 2018 at 1:13 pm

    ye. very interesting video. I didn't know much about the organisation of frigates in the 1700s until I watched this video!

  85. Paul Maus Posted on March 1, 2019 at 4:21 am

    but there are 48 gun ports on that ship

  86. James Neave Posted on March 14, 2019 at 8:55 pm

    Forecastle: "Fork-sl" 😊
    I know it's not your first language and even the English mostly don't know this.
    And I know that English is a god awful mess to the Germans.

  87. Mike Regan Posted on May 6, 2019 at 10:40 pm

    Absolutely fantastic, I really appreciate what you've done.

  88. Mihail Dimitrov Posted on May 22, 2019 at 11:36 am

    I have watched it a while ago. It's still a captivating and informative video. Congratulations and contuniue beeing awesome.
    Also I liked the Mighty Jingles touch.

  89. Joe Butterman Posted on June 30, 2019 at 5:56 am

    The narrator ought to use proper naval pronunciation of naval terms.

  90. Eric Sell Posted on July 26, 2019 at 4:55 am

    Wow, the naval side of things seems unnecessarily top-heavy…like every 3rd person you see will be an officer of some kind.

  91. Jeffrey Templeton Posted on August 22, 2019 at 5:30 pm

    Boys duties involved semen. Boys were on board because women weren't.

  92. tubby town Posted on August 31, 2019 at 2:32 pm

    BRIAN LAVERY not Brain Lavery !! Please.

    Otherwise, thx.

  93. NoogDeNoog Posted on September 8, 2019 at 9:25 pm

    any information on the % of able seamen to ordinary seamen. I know that A.B.S. got 2 shares of prize money to the O.S. 1 1/2.

  94. Joseph Melcher Posted on September 14, 2019 at 6:26 am

    I would love to hear about German ships during the age of sail.

  95. Stephen Britton Posted on September 17, 2019 at 2:11 am

    I have seen other sources that stated "Marines were assigned at one Private per gun, plus the necessary officers and NCO's." Thus this ship would have 36 privates. It may also be a case of "how many privates can we actually recruit vs get killed."

  96. Nowhere man Posted on October 19, 2019 at 1:47 am

    this is a very good video

  97. king oreos Posted on October 22, 2019 at 9:42 pm

    Guys would die all the time, need bodies